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Algae Fuel Inches Toward Price Parity with Oil

With over 100 start-ups hard at work, industry predicts it can deliver success in under a decade if granted production tax credits

Nov 22, 2010

The promise of making motor fuel out of pond scum is inching closer to reality as the algae industry and its supporters plow forward with technology demonstrations and demand tax credits that are needed to cut costs.

The head of the 170-member Algal Biomass Organization (ABO), Mary Rosenthal, predicts the fledgling fuel source could be cost competitive with oil in seven years.

"We're hoping to be to be at parity with fossil fuel-based petroleum in the year 2017 or 2018, with the idea that we will be at several billions of gallons," Rosenthal told SolveClimate News in a phone interview.

Some are more optimistic.

Dan Simon, president and CEO of Heliae, an algae technology company based in Arizona, thinks industry could deliver commercial algae at the price of oil after about three years. However, he acknowledged it may take longer — perhaps as long as a decade.

For now, the industry has yet to produce a drop of fuel for commercial production. And while producers pin their hopes on cost breakthroughs, some researchers maintain a skeptical eye.

Berkeley Report: 'Neither Quick Nor Plentiful'

A new report by the University of California, Berkeley's Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) said it would take a decade of testing to determine if algae companies can produce affordable biofuels in mass quantities.

The current cost of a barrel of algae biofuel ranges from $140 a barrel to $900 per barrel.

"Algae oil production will be neither quick nor plentiful — ten years is a reasonable projection for the R&D to allow a conclusion about the ability to achieve relatively low-cost algae biomass and oil production, at least for specific locations," the authors, Nigel Quinn and Tryg Lundquist of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, wrote.

The industry still must leap at least one key hurdle: finding the right strain of algae that will produce reliably and cheaply at high yields. The goal is to "at least double biomass and oil productivity through strain selection and genetic modification," the report said.

But Rosenthal, who spent more than 20 years in corporate work, is quick to dismiss any suggestion that the technology may not be poised for prime time.   

"The technology is mature," she said. "We’re going through the same nascent issues of any emerging industry — where you're going from lab to pilot, from pilot to scale."

100-Plus Startups at Work

Algae converts sunlight and carbon dioxide into oil. Some strains can be made into diesel fuel, aviation fuel and gasoline and are processed in two basic ways — in open-air ponds or closed photobioreactor systems like those used by Heliae.  

Algae yields up to 20 times more energy per acre than leading biofuel crops like corn, according to estimates. Unlike corn ethanol, algal strains can sprout on marginal lands so they need not gobble up acres used to grow food.  Because the slimy organisms suck up CO2, they also have potential to cut climate-altering greenhouse gases.

The Department of Energy says algae grown on a 15,000-square-mile area, about the size of Maryland, could theoretically meet the nation's oil needs.

Currently, more than 100 companies worldwide are at work to bring algae to market. In the U.S., scale-up demonstration projects by startups Algenol, Phycal, Sapphire Energy, Solazyme and Heliae are being planned or running in eight states.

For two years, Heliae has churned out algae-based biofuel at its pilot site at Arizona State University. Its first demo plant is expected to be operational in Gilbert, Arizona — about 20 miles southeast of Phoenix — in the first quarter of 2012.

Algae Fuel - Future energy option

Excellent post on Algae Fuel.

 

Algae fuel might be an alternative to fossil fuel and uses algae,

The production of biofuels from algae does not reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), because any CO2 taken out of the atmosphere by the algae is returned when the biofuels are burned - except where fuel gas emissions are captured and recycled as feedstock in an enclosed growth system such as that under development at 3 coal fired power stations in Australia. They also potentially reduce the introduction of new CO2 by displacing fossil hydrocarbon fuels.

Microalgae have much faster growth rates than terrestrial crops. The per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from between 5,000 to 20,000 US gallons per acre per year (4,700 to 18,000 m3/km2·a). This is 7 to 30 times greater than the next best crop, Chinese tallow (700 US gal/acre·a or 650 m3/km2·a).

Studies show that some species of algae can produce up to 60% of their dry weight in the form of oil. Because the cells grow in aqueous suspension, where they have more efficient access to water, CO2 and dissolved nutrients, microalgae are capable of producing large amounts of biomass and usable oil in either high rate algal ponds or photo bioreactors. This oil can then be turned into biodiesel which could be sold for use in automobiles. Regional production of microalgae and processing into biofuels will provide economic benefits to rural communities

 

Algae yield compared to mother oil sources:

 

Crop                       Oil Yield

                             Gallons/acre

Corn                            18

Cotton                          35

Soyabean                     48

Mustard seed               61

Sunflower                   102

Rapeseed                   127

Jatropa                       202

Oil Palm                      635

Algae                            10,000

 

Source: (Algaefuel Creating Sustainable Fuel Alternatives)

 

Dr.A.Jagadeesh Nellore (AP), India

E-mail: Anumakonda.jagadeesh@gmail.com

Last and Greatest Caucasian Empire Fades

Yankee Doodle still flails around in search of a liquid energy for his beloved Asian designed  gasoline motor-car! Years ago, his European counterpart went to a more thermally efficient diesel engine, developed some of the most highly perfected examples of this engine at VW and Mercedes labs, mass-produce and used them daily, with astounding results - they lasted much longer, gave immense low end torque, were over 40% more fuel efficent, fit the automotive paradigm perfectly, and rarely required repairs.

For reasons hidden deeply in his soul, Yankee Doodle would rather watch his own country go broke purchasing huge amounts of foreign oil, to make into gasoline, for him to waste driving down the road. The silly bugger just can`t see why a 40% more efficient diesel engine in the same motor-car would reduce the stress on his dollar, his government, and his economy.

Yankee Doodle will tell of a time, when the now defunct, socialit GM company tried and failed to produce decent diesels, even at a time when European diesels were there as a good example, a free how-to. The GM diesels were almost as poor as the Chev Vega aluminum block engine, or the Corvair air-cooled engine. Fact was, GM never got anything quite right - not even the EV-1, so it is no mystery why they failed so badly at diesel engine building.

Watch Algae diesel fuel develop as the price of oil is driven ever upwards by the burgeoning demand in Asia. Asians, with a very strong currency in hand, will drive the U.S. dollar price of oil beyond the average American`s reach. Yankee Doodle may at that point decide that Algae diesel burning in a diesel-electric, plug in hybrid of modest size and power better suits his pocket book capabilities.

Algae based biofuels are ready for scale up, now.

We've been ready to get on with de-centralized algae based biofuels production for over a year. Unfortunately, our worthless leader decided he would use that money for "Cash for Clunkers" after turning their backs on our biofuels commercialization grant application and lied to the public saying "Nobody applied". This enabled him to rob our nation of billions of dollars for his corporate buddies who could afford to pay for his campaign. We were left out in the cold when we have the technology those in the know within our industry are flat scared of when we can find capital to finally begin moving forward again. 

Personally I want Obama and Dr. Steven Chu out on the street by the end of the day. Haven't these people performed poorly enough for us to terminate their employment early? I refuse to pay for anything Obama crams down my throat, I won't do it. Not after it was the people who asked us to make the sacrifice and left us twisting in the wind after we did so. I call that treason and I call it unconscionable that either of these bufoons continue to draw a payheck. I won't pay for such piss poor performance. If I did this poorly at my job, I wouldn't have one any more. Obama has got to go!!!

Algae Fuel

Combining bio-remediation, multi-use and multi-purpose site utilization, oil extraction and dry algae exploitation not only gets us past the strict price barrier, but also makes the projects profitable enough to attract the next-level capital investments. Tri or quad generation systems are not only the path of the future, they are the path for today.

And many Americans would pay an extra dollar a gallon if they knew that all of the money stayed in their County, Town or City, for what goes around, comes around, in local jobs, local sales, local food, and local fuels.

It is time we quit sending our nation's wealth to the Middle East, Chavez and Nigeria, and started keeping our hard earned monies in our own pockets.

Current costs of algae oil mistated.

You left the key word out of this sentence. "The current cost of a barrel of algae biofuel ranges from $140 a barrel to $900 per barrel." That word is "projected" as in projected cost - rather than actual cost. I challenge you to provide your readers with one source where say 10,000 gallons of algae oil can be purchased today for $140 per barrel. The Navy had to pay in excess of $800/gal to purchase enough algae oil for its test this year. After 80 years of research, the lack of algae oil at any where near competitive prices is the most exact comment on it's current state as an economically feasible energy source.</p><p>Rosenthal is correct - "The technology is mature," she said. "We’re going through the same nascent issues of any emerging industry — where you're going from lab to pilot, from pilot to scale." Because the technology is mature and is still an order of maganitude more expensive than petroleum and other alternatives like solar and wind, and worse - algae oil is dependent on non-renewables like petroleum and phosphates for it's fertilizer nutrients (competing with human food crops for them) at large commercial scale - it is highly improbable that algae oil will ever be a primary source of energy, but rather a useful indirect tool in environmental remediation and waste recovery.

Taxpayers are looking for results, not more research

Algae has been reserched in the US for over 50 years and NOTHING to date has been commercialized at the university level.  As long as algae researchers can continue to say it's too expensive, cannot be done and needs more research the DOE will continue giving them grants.  Taxpayers are looking for results, not more research. 


The DOE is only set up to give out grants for RESEARCH, NOT SCALE-UP.  The USDA is set up to do LOAN GUARANTEES, NOT LOANS.  The VC's are not investing.  The banks are shut not lending.  So please please tell us where the money is coming from for scale-up??? 


 

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